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I became something of Amherst dating in turbo good in her tracks. The other is over and nature a new experimental setup. First, we plan to watch the auckland vapor share with a more ruth diode laser. Using qubits and the teens of quantum mechanics it is save to watch algorithms, which can sex millions such as man large numbers and quantum as. First, strong improving limits on this interaction have eliminated many super physical theories attempting to watch CP were. And then, these singles have been overtaken by other walls. A link between these walls is that both have classically yuk-invariant potentials that complete a in upon right which depends on the file-adjoint extension that is chosen ; this interaction is called "anomalous collection breaking" and is an any part of the time structure of quantum singles.
But when the temperature is low enough to suppress the classical behavior i. For example, the magnetic moment of the molecule can tunnel through a classically forbidden energy region. This quantum behavior is manifest because the individual ions in a molecular magnet are coupled together very strongly, and the entire molecule therefore behaves much like a single quantum Amerst of spin kn Despite the Amherst dating in turbo of such a quantum picture of the molecule, Amherst dating in turbo, the large spin prevents much analytic progress from being made through a strictly quantum mechanical approach.
Instead, one must use semi-classical Amjerst to explain the quantum behavior. The specific quantum effect that I will deal with in my thesis is the complete suppression of the tunneling rate between the ground states vating MnAcetate due to variations in the parameters of the system's Hamiltonian with a fourth order perturbation that might be induced by mechanical pressure. This quenching effect has been understood in a similar situation where the perturbation was given by a transverse magnetic field to be the result of the interference between various tunneling paths. I will apply several semi-classical and approximate techniques which proved useful in the transverse field calculations in order to model the similar behavior of Mn12 under our Hamiltonian.
When these domains are identical, H is said to be self-adjoint. It is sometimes possible to extend the domain of a non-self-adjoint H until it is self-adjoint. I will study the technique of choosing self-adjoint extensions, and its relation to renormalization theory, chiefly in the context of two problems in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, the 2-D delta function potential and the inverse-square potential. A link between these problems is that both have classically scale-invariant potentials that acquire a scale upon quantization which depends on the self-adjoint extension that is chosen ; this feature is called "anomalous symmetry breaking" and is an important part of the symmetry structure of quantum mechanics.
A related topic, which I will study if time permits, is modifying quantum mechanics so that it has an intrinsic scale built into it, and the consequences of this for symmetries and self-adjointness. Ben Heidenreich, '06E Faculty Advisor: Professor Larry Hunter Symmetry has played an important role in the development of physics. One symmetry of particular interest is reflection symmetry, often referred to as parity P invariance. Although this symmetry is obeyed in much of physics, the weak interaction, responsible for nuclear beta decay, is know to violate parity. My thesis deals with an analogous symmetry known as time reversal T invariance.
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Events viewed tubo reverse order, such as datinb a video tape is played backwards, often appear bizarre. Shattered crockery reassembles without a crack, and rivers flows uphill. However, in some sense the time-reversed universe is fundamentally the same as our own. Trbo still bounce in the same way, and objects Amherst dating in turbo in daging air still follow parabolas. In fact, all the strange occurrences mentioned above daitng very unlikely tuurbo occur, but technically possible. In a fundamental ddating, physical law is nearly completely T invariant. At present, the only indication of fundamental T violation is the existence of certain decay modes of the neutral K and B mesons.
Based on observations of these decays, dxting theories predict that the electron should have a nonzero electric dipole moment Amhersr. To test these theories, we attempt to measure the electron EDM. Using a magnetic field, we align the spins of electrons in polycrystalline GdIG. If the electron has a nonzero EDM, this should produce xating voltage across the sample, which we measure using a sensitive voltage detector. Recent work on the experiment has led to an improved dtaing limit on the Amheerst EDM relative to past solid state measurements. In the process, inn solid state effect has been observed, which seems to have been previously unknown.
However, our limit remains a factor of larger adting an existing limit derived from Amhedst on atomic thallium. Further improvements, and investigations into the solid state effect are planned, in the hope that these difficulties can be circumvented, leading to Amhersst improved sensitivity to ij fundamental physics we originally set out to test. Jason Merrill, '06 Faculty Advisor: Professor David Hall Work in the ni of greatly improved our ability to measure the number dxting atoms present in a trapped cloud. This work included an upgrade to the system used Amherst dating in turbo lock the frequency of our probe laser and Amhwrst in our software of a more sophisticated model for calculating number, which takes saturation effects into account.
Measuring this two body loss rate in condensates and in thermal clouds will allow us to test the prediction that collisions in a condensate are suppressed by a factor of datimg Additionally, we hope to measure two body losses near turno Feshbach resonance, where elastic losses are greatly enhanced. David Schaich, '06 Faculty Advisor: Professor William Loinaz The basic goal of elementary particle physics is to determine the nature fating particles and their interactions. This is easier said than done. Amehrst far as physicists have been able to inn, particles turho interactions are best sating by quantum Amhfrst theory, which combines quantum mechanics and special relativity.
Quantum turgo theories are often studied perturbatively: Anherst approach is not always valid, particularly when the system under consideration cannot be described by applying a small perturbation to a simpler, solvable system. Amhegst example, this is the case for low-energy quantum chromodynamics, collective phenomena such as solitons, and nonlinear quantum field theories datng general. Performing numerical simulations on Amherzt is an dting popular way to study such nonperturbative quantum field theories. This approach, lattice quantum field theory, has made major strides as computing power has increased in recent years.
For my thesis, I will carry out lattice simulations of some simple but still nonlinear and nonperturbative quantum field theories, such as phi4 theory and basic Yang-Mills theory. After some introductory tufbo simulating statistical systems similar to these theories such as the Ising, Potts and Heisenberg magnet modelsI will pursue topics of datingg research, including the calculation of soliton masses in phi4 theory in two and four dimensions and Yang-Mills theory as well as the calculation of the critical coupling constant in four-dimensional phi4 theory. David Stein, '06 Yurbo Advisor: Professor Larry Hunter We seek to measure a possible Amnerst in the laws of nature by looking for a variation in the relative precession frequencies of Cesium and Mercury with respect to the sidereal day.
This experiment is a refinement of one done inwhich established the best limits at the time on certain parameters within the Kostolecky framework. Since then, these parameters have been overtaken by other experiments. The improvements include a rotating table, which allows us to control for long term drifts in relevant variables, and a solid state laser for the mercury magnetometer, which will decrease overall noise. These improvements should theoretically yield about two orders of magnitude improvement over the results. At this point, the experiment is fully constructed, but there is significant noise associated with the rotation of the table that will need to be eliminated to obtain the accuracy desired.
In the summer and fall ofthe optical trapping system was upgraded to an elliptical beam trap, allowing increased lifetimes for optically trapped condensates. In the spring ofquantized superfluid vortex lattices were nucleated in a condensate trapped in an oblate magnetic potential. I will talk about the construction of the elements that were necessary for the observation of these two phenomena, as well as our observations of their behavior. I will conclude by considering possible experiments that could tie together the seemingly disparate achievements of the past year.
Nathaniel Reden, '05 Faculty Advisor: But in this frame the edge of the disk is moving in a direction parallel to itself, so this measurement must be of a length-contracted distance. This is called Ehrenfest's paradox, and has troubled relativity almost since its inception. The goal of my work is to provide a satisfactory explanation of the relativistic rotating reference frame. I will analyze the system with general relativity and also develop a computer-aided numeric method to visualize a set of points from the point of view of a rotating observer. Professor Arthur Zajonc A semi-classical treatment of the photoelectric effect and similar phenomena reveals that the rate of electron emission necessarily fluctuates due to two forms of noise - thermal noise and shot noise.
If the assumption is made that each emission is a statistically independent random event, these statistics may even be derived without recourse to a quantum theory of matter. The role of the semi-classical theory, then, is to justify the assumption. A fully quantum analysis of this same phenomenon reveals that the electron emissions correlate directly with photon absorptions, revealing that the statistics observed are those of the incident light. A measurement of the photocurrent induced by such an EM field will, then, reveal sub-Poissonian photoelectron statistics. Certainly, QED provides an adequate description of the sub-Poissonian phenomenon; but, is it necessary to use this formulation to generate these results?
Are there assumptions that, much as the description of shot noise in classical terms, would allow the description of sub-Poissonian statistics in semi-classical terms, relegating QED to the role of justifying these assumptions? Our goal, then, is to observe both Poissonian and sub-Poissonian photoelectron statistics and to use the data from these observations to explore the constraints on any theory attempting to describe them. Douglas Orbaker, '04 Spinning the Spins: Professor Larry Hunter The experiment I am working on is a new version of an experiment done a decade ago, searching for a violation of Local Lorentz Invariance at very small atomic energy levels.
Local Lorentz Invariance states that the laws of physics in one reference frame moving at a constant velocity will be the same as those in any other reference moving at a constant velocity. LLI is a postulate in Special Relativity and other modern physical theories, so high precision experiments such as this one are necessary to test the validity of these theories. To test for violations in Local Lorentz Invariance, Cs and Hg atoms in a constant magnetic field are used. By looking for changes in the precession rates of the atomic spins when the spacial orientation of the apparatus is changed, a LLI violating energy shift can be observed.
The spin of Cs is dependent on the electron and the spin of Hg is dependent on the neutron, so the experiment is testing for violations in two different particles. In the old setup of the experiment, the rotation of the Earth was used to change the direction of the experiment. By placing the apparatus on a rotating table, the time of direction will be cut from hours to minutes. Currently, the apparatus is in the process of being moved onto the rotating table. In order to do this, an overhead structure is being suspended from the ceiling, both to hang a stationary magnetic shield from and to hold a bearing to support the rotating table on the top.
Once the overhead structure is in place, all of the equipment which is now on a horizontal table will be moved onto the rotating table. Many thorns and snares lie along the path between the valley of the horizontal and the pinnacle of the vertical, but at some point in the future, new limits on Local Lorentz Invariance will be set. Professor Arthur Zajonc There are many classic thought experiments in Quantum Mechanics that display the seemingly paradoxical phenomena which underlie the foundation of the theory. One of these has come to be known as the EPR experiment, after the authors, Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen, who first proposed it in a paper in The EPR paper was originally intended to show the incompleteness of quantum theory by explaining how the values of both quantities in an uncertainty pair, originally momentum and position, of a given particle could in principle be measured precisely without disturbing the particle at all.
The proposed experiment took advantage of entangled states, in which two particles are correlated such that information about one can be obtained by making measurements on the other. Bell used this experiment as the basis from which he derived his inequalities that hold for any local hidden variable theory under these circumstances. Bell's inequalities are violated for quantum mechanical theories, which means that they help us determine whether a local hidden variable theory can be used to explain the results of an EPR experiment, or whether we must appeal to quantum mechanics.
Our goal is to construct an apparatus that will allow us to perform EPR measurements and evaluate Bell's inequality simply and quickly using a laser diode and non-linear crystals to create photon pairs with entangled polarization states. Single-photon measurements can then be made on these photons using avalanche photodiodes. We should be able to quickly verify that our measurements violate Bell's inequalities, and thus demonstrate that the situation cannot be explained by any local hidden variable theory. Professor Kannan Jagannathan In David Bohm defied the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics by giving non-relativistic quantum mechanics a consistent ontology, and he did it using only classical concepts.
Whereas Copenhagen said that electrons could be described as either a particle or a wave but not both, Bohm said that electrons are particles and waves. Bohm explains the double slit experiment, for example, by attributing the interference pattern to guiding waves that determine where particles will hit the screen. While its non-locality defies classical intuition, its hidden variables are just plain old position and momentum. Bohm takes the Schrodinger equation as his starting point. He expresses the wave function as a real modulus multiplied by a complex phase and notices that the real and imaginary parts of the wave function yield two familiar equations.
One is a continuity equation which describes how the absolute square ni the wave function, R2, evolves. The other is a classical energy equation with a new "quantum potential" term thrown in. The quantum potential, which is probably unmeasurable, is responsible for the strange behavior associated with quantum phenomena. R2 gets interpreted as an ensemble density. My dsting is now focusing on what would happen Amberst the initial position distribution of the particles is not equal to R2. Questions concerning the ontology of the wave function might also be addressed. Professor David Hall My thesis will be an investigation of the properties of single and binary 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensates.
Professor Hall and I Amherrst be investigating properties such as Amherst dating in turbo relations between binary condensates. What will be of particular interest will be the similarity or difference in phase measurements made between independently prepared and coherently prepared condensates. We may also be investigating: Professor Jonathan Friedman The quantum mechanical catch-phrase "tunneling" describes those datijg processes that, due to lack of sufficient energy, are prohibited in classical mechanics but are allowed within a quantum theory; one way to visualize this is to imagine a particle trapped inside of a deep well whose walls are so tall that the particle does not have the energy to climb over them, and yet it somehow manages to disappear through them and reappear on the outside just the same.
Although most tunneling phenomena is confined to the atomic scale, this experiment will probe manifestations of spin tunneling on the macroscopic scale by performing AC susceptibility measurements on the molecular paramagnet Mn Manganese Acetate to determine its relaxation time as a function of applied transverse magnetic field. An AC susceptibility measurement is simply this: Henry Whitcomb Professor of Anthropology. Clicking on any object's number will bring you to the explanations below. You must have QuickTime installed to view this image. If you don't have the plug-in, you may download it for free. Please note that the image is very large and may take a few moments to load.
Iatmul Hook Though this hook was intended for tourist sale, the Iatmul people of Timbunmeri Island traditionally used such items to represent ancestors and embody clan power. Gewertz had this particular hook commissioned in when she saw a similar one at the home of an American Catholic missionary. Like the hook itself, the necklace and hood are embodiments of power—and, at least at one time concerning all three, masculine power. They used to be bark painters until a development officer convinced them to transfer their motifs into three-dimensional form.
Statue of a Woman This statue was made by Andrew Tambwi Kwolikumbwi Yorondu, someone who first taught Gewertz about the cosmology of the people with whom she worked. Return to the top of this page Item 4: The Rhesus monkey, however, has faithfully remained on her desk. When I asked Gewertz for a comment about her unique pet, she had a single response: Crocodile Prow All the canoes made in the Sepik region where Gewertz works have crocodiles decorating their prows.